Pests Number of possible sites to be affected Possible areas to be affected Triggering Conditions  
Region Province  
RODENT 25 SITES 6 Capiz 1. Absence of effective vertebrate predation has better chances for successful breeding.  
2 Nueva Vizcaya 2. Asynchronous planting.  
Isabela 3. No fallow period.  
9 Zamboanga del Sur      
5 Albay      
13 Surigao del Norte      
1 La Union      
11 Davao Oriental      
3 Aurora      
8 Samar      
STEMBORER 10 SITES 6 Antique 1. Excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer  
Capiz 2. Asynchronous planting.  
5 Camarines Sur 3. No fallow period.  
8 Leyte      
1 La union      
2 Nueva Vizcaya      
9 Zamboanga del Sur      
TUNGRO 8 SITES 5 Camarines Sur 1. Frequent spraying of insecticide  
Camarines Norte 2. Asynchronous planting.  
Sorsogon 3. No fallow period.  
9 Zamboanga del Sur 4. Excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer  
6 Iloilo      
8 Leyte      
ARMYWORM 5 SITES 9 Zamboanga del Sur 1. Combination of high temperature and high humidity.  
Zamboanga del Norte  
11 Davao del Sur 2. No fallow period.  
Davao del Norte 3. Dry season starts earlier than usual.  
Davao Oriental 4. Prolonged drought followed by heavy rains.  
5 Albay  
Catanduanes 5. Presence of undisturbed vegetation in the production area.  
Camarines Sur  
4-A Quezon      
6 Antique      
12 North Cotabato      
South Cotabato      
Sultan Kudarat      
1 La Union      
2 Cagayan      
ARMM Lanao del Sur    



Other pests that might occur occasionally by second quarter based on historical records

  • Rice bug, defoliator, rice black bug and bacterial leaf blight.




During fallow period

  • Community Trap Barrier System

Before seed sowing

  • Chemical control
    • Acute rodenticide = Pre-baiting: before seeding or before transplanting -use acute (single-dose) poison
      • Zinc phosphide
      •   Chronic rodenticide = 2 WAT: 5 baiting stations/ha (6 tbsp./station) use chronic (multiple-dose)
        • -Coumatetralyl (Racumin)

During land preparation

  • Sanitation
  • Rat burrow management
  • Night rat hunting

Maximum tillering

  • Increase water level

Booting stage

  • Organize community wide rat hunting
  • Flooding
  • Use of flame thrower 
  • Use of trap 



Before sowing

ü  Thorough land preparation to kill larvae and pupae

ü  Plant rice varieties that are  moderately resistant to stem borer

ü  Practice synchronous planting- allows fewer stem borer generation within the cropping season-reducing damage.

At seedbed and transplanting

ü  Hand pick and destroy egg masses

ü  Raise water level periodically to submerge egg masses deposited on the lower parts of the plant.

ü  Before transplanting. Cut leaf-top to reduce carry-over of egg masses from seedbed to the field

ü  Follow recommended N fertilizer application. High N increases crop susceptibility to stem borers

After transplanting

ü  Field release of Trichogramma japonicum (egg parasitoid)

ü  Judicious application of insecticides

ü  Use insecticides as a last resort – and only when needed to conserve natural enemies

     (Larvae are inside the stem and eggs are minimally killed by insecticides)



ü  Synchronous planting (planting on same dates)

ü  Plant tungro or leafhopper resistant varieties

ü  Practice fallow (rest) period

ü  Seriously infected fields should be plowed under when severe symptoms appear

ü  Rogue or pull out diseased plants during the first 6 weeks of crop growth in slightly (3% or less) infected areas

ü  Remove weeds that look like alternative hosts because virus-infected hoppers breed in weedy areas

ü  Avoid excessive application of nitrogenous fertilizers

ü  Control the insect vector using biological control agents and chemical insecticide as last resort



Cultural Methods

ü  Practice fallow (rest) period of 2-3 months to break the life cycle of the pest

ü  Egg masses and larvae should be collected and crushed

ü  Remove alternate hosts

ü  Plow under plant debris after harvest

ü  Follow recommended fertilizer requirement

ü  Crop rotation with root crops, cotton and other non-graminae plants

ü  Lower plant population per hectare or increase planting distance to allow sunlight to penetrate

Biological Control

ü  Use of Biological Control Agents such as predators (spiders), parasitoids (wasps) and entomopathogens (NPV)

Chemical Control

Chemical control (use pyrethroids, methomyl, chlorpyrifos, triazophos insecticides)

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